Hallux valgus

What is the valgus foot in children? Pathology represents a curvature to the inside of the leg, foot, which is accompanied by deviation of the heel and the toes outwards, reducing the arch size of the foot of the crumbs.

Some call the disease "the butterfly effect", due to the fact that the back of the foot like an insect. The indentation between the heel and toes of the child almost disappears.

Hallux valgus

If you put the kid on feet, the looming shape of the letter "X".

Hallux valgus the position of the stop, the child, depending on the causes may be congenital or acquired.

Congenital etiology caused by various malformations of the elements of the musculoskeletal system, genetic or chromosomal abnormalities in the fetus.

In this case, the pathology develops in utero and is detectable immediately after birth, and the degree of curvature in the case of congenital hallux valgus is very pronounced.

Edwards syndrome – a chromosomal anomaly in which there is a severe degree of hallux valgus newborn stop rocking

The acquired form of disease develops after birth and can have many causes, including:

  • prematurity or birth of a baby with a small body mass;
  • a deficiency of calcium and/or vitamin D;
  • overweight in children;
  • syndrome of connective tissue dysplasia;
  • often acute infections;
  • cerebral palsy;
  • polio and other infections that affect the nervous system;
  • muscle disease;
  • the defeat of the peripheral nerves (neuropathy);
  • pathology of the hip joints (dysplasia and congenital hip dislocation);
  • too early ambulation of the child on his feet;
  • diseases of the endocrine system (diabetes, hypothyroidism);
  • irrational selection of shoes;
  • excessive load is not formed until the end of the foot;
  • trauma (fractures, dislocations, sprains);
  • surgery on the feet.

Paradoxically, but in some cases, the formation of feet deformity in the child, help the parents.

In particular, to ensure that the baby took his first steps at the earliest possible age, parents used to put him on his legs, teaching the skill of walking.

Thus the musculoskeletal system of the child is not always ready for such high loads. As a result, develop deformation processes. This means that the child needs to take the first steps in that age when his body is ready for it (10-12 months).

Among other reasons for the formation of foot deformities include:

  • genetic predisposition;
  • weakness muscle;
  • diseases of endocrine nature.
  • trauma sustained during childbirth (e.g. hip dislocation);
  • wearing the wrong shoes, which is not able to lock the foot in position;
  • the lack of physical activity;
  • diseases that lead to deformation and destruction of cartilage and bone tissues.

The degree of development of the disease

The degree of development of the disease

The difference in the degrees with valgus deformity of the foot depends on the angle that varies between the first finger and the bone (connecting the metatarsal).

1 degree

At the first degree in the corner there is an increase in deformation of the joint (sesamoid ligaments too moveable), there is subluxation of the foot.

2 degree

At the second degree hallux valgus is a further displacement of the tendons and joints in the thumb.

3 degree

Hallux Valgus (Hallux — big toe, Valgus — deviation) has four degrees of deformation depending on the angle of curvature:

  • first degree — more than 15 degrees, a person does not feel discomfort;
  • second degree — more than 20 degrees, begin to appear the first pain and pathology outwardly is impossible to ignore;
  • third degree — more than 30 degrees, starts the deformation of the adjacent phalanges and the limitations of movement;
  • fourth degree — 50 degrees and more, accompanied by pathological changes in the whole foot and regular painful sensations.

The first and second the extent of the disease is rather a cosmetic defect and suggests active measures of prevention. In the presence of third or fourth degree disease valgus deformity of the big toe treatment is required.

Depending on the degree of deviation doctors there are several stages of disease development in children:

  • the degree of deviation is 10-15, pathology responds well to treatment, sometimes it is enough just to change shoes;
  • deformation of 15-20 degrees, the child becomes hard to go for full recovery will need to put a lot of effort;
  • the angle of deflection with valgus of the foot in a child is about 30 degrees. The treatment of this pathology is long and requires constant monitoring by parents and physicians;
  • pathology is more than 30 degrees. With this deviation from the norm is a long treatment, the lack of positive results causes physicians to refer for surgical correction of the foot in children.

Depending on the deflection axis of the valgus of the foot from the norm, there are 4 degrees of severity of the pathology:

  • 1 degree deflection angle is 10-15º deformity responds well to conservative treatment and it can be totally correct.
  • 2 degree deflection angle of 15-20º. To cure deformation is possible with the help of complex conservative methods.
  • 3 the degree of deviation from the normal axis of the foot in the range of 20-30º, to get rid of pathology is possible even with only conservative treatment, but the therapy process requires a lot of time and effort.
  • 4 degree deflection angle of more than 30º. It is a heavy degree of deformation, which is almost impossible to cure among conservative treatments, many patients require special operation.

The deformed foot in a child are 4 stages:

1. A mild form. At this stage, the specialist will diagnose deviations in the range of 10-15 degrees. In this case, it is easier and simpler just to cure the disease.

2. In the second stage, deviations in the range of 15-20 degrees. To cure the deformity of foot, the child in this case is possible, but it should work for them.

3. In the third stage of the disease abnormalities out 20-30 degrees. In this case, the disease is treatable, but it will be long.

4. The most severe degree of the disease is the fourth. A stop is characterized by the deviation from the norm by more than 30 %. In this case, if comprehensive treatment (wearing proper shoes, massage, exercise) is not helping, we should get rid of this disease by surgery.

Characteristic signs and symptoms

The pathology can be recognized, drawing attention to the following signs and symptoms:

Causes deformation of the stop
  1. When a child is in an upright position (standing or walking), it is possible to notice the specific curvature of the legs of the baby. That is, his knees tightly in contact with each other, with the ankles widely separated in the direction.
  2. Ankles are not closed even if the child gets one knee over the other.
  3. If the child is on a solid surface, his heel like travel in different directions from each other.
  4. Note the toddler shoes. The inner part wears out quickly, while the foreign remains unchanged.
  5. The child develops flat feet, the arch of the foot drops when walking the floor.
  6. Toddler complains of leg pain, fatigue.

Symptoms and signs

Signs PLANO-valgus deformity of the foot following:

  • Obvious visual cosmetic defect – the joint greatly increases in size, bulging out sideways, perpendicular to the axis of the foot, and the finger is turned in the opposite direction, inside; there is a so-called varus foot position.
  • Accompany the symptomatic manifestations of PLANO-valgus pathology and flat feet, severe chronic bursitis and arthrosis deformans, which affects the metatarsophalangeal joints.


For correct selection of treatment, prevention of disease (physical exercise, gymnastics, massage), as well as prevent its further development, requires timely and thorough examination of the patient.

To specify, the doctor makes an x-ray of the foot in 3 projections – so you can identify which of the 3 degrees of development of hallux valgus foot of the patient, and find out if he had additional concomitant pathologies, such as avascular necrosis, cyst, arthritis, inflammatory disorders of the periosteum and t.. d..

In case of detection of relevant symptoms, the doctor applies a treatment (orthotics, corrective exercises, gymnastics, massage) that can help if not cure then at least fix his appearance.

For diagnosis the patient should consult a podiatrist. Diagnosis begins with a visual examination of the affected area. The expert drew attention to the degree of deviation of the thumb, range of motion, the presence of associated deformities.

Outwardly, the signs of the bones in the foot are similar to the symptoms of such diseases as arthritis, deforming osteoarthritis, gout. To confirm the diagnosis, the doctor may prescribe additional studies:

  1. X-rays in three planes to determine pathological changes in the foot.
  2. Computer plantography shows the uniformity of the load on the foot.
  3. Computer podometry is assigned to identify bursitis in the early stages.

In parallel, the doctor gathers information about the history of the disease: the limitations of deformation, the presence of precipitating factors, speed of progression. When assigning a course of treatment is determined by the presence of concomitant diseases of the patient.

Upon confirmation of the presence of disease hallux valgus big toe treatment can be assigned to operative or conservative.

Little patient needs specific treatment. To cope with the diagnosis and prescribed the necessary treatment can only be experienced specialist.

Get rid of pathology will help the special tools (tyres, fixing plaster bandage), to pick up the necessary thing only after the necessary diagnostic manipulations:

  • the x-rays. Make three different camera angles for young children is used rarely, only in severe cases;
  • podometry. The method allows to clarify the situation with the disputed diagnosis;
  • computer plantography. This refers to the study of the morphological indicators of the child's foot.

When visible signs of defect are assigned the use of special fastening devices.

Test at home

Self can also be defined in the crumbs the presence of pathology. To identify the problem, we need to carry out the following manipulation:

  • you will need the usual butter and a sheet of paper of A4 size;
  • lubricate by means of the foot of the baby, put it on paper, wait until it's absorbed oil. Feet should be parallel to each other at a small distance;
  • rate the resulting "picture". Butter prints should match the child's age, pay attention to the external circuit.

Image you can take with you to the doctor's appointment, to expedite the diagnostic process, to quickly deal with the defect (if it exists).




Finally to cure deformation of 3 degrees is almost impossible, but you can do without surgery. There are several standard methods of treatment aimed at correction of this pathology.


Installation of special orthopedic insoles are intended for correction of PLANO-valgus deformity of the foot.

Such insoles exhibit high efficiency in the early stages of the disease, in addition, the podiatrist must designate special insoles to correct the position of the foot.

In addition to the above method shows the installation of the correctors and extra ties for the fingers. The best option is medical shoes orthopedic properties, which are individually fitted insoles.


The deformation shows a special foot massage. With this purpose, you should turn to professionals. Often to correct pathology, the podiatrist prescribes a course of massage consisting of ten sessions, which should be repeated at least every few months.


Properly selected physical exercises help significantly to correct the deformity. The most common types of gymnastics:

  • walking on the floor with your toes;
  • walking on uneven surfaces;
  • attempt to grab the toes of some items;
  • move around the room only on the outer part of the feet.

For gymnastics for the treatment of suitable exercises using massage Mat.

Physical therapy

The complex of physical events is not suitable for treatment, and to minimize the symptoms. Well when you strain to complement treatment with massage, orthopedic insoles and gymnastic exercises.