Flat feet — (pes planus; synonym flat foot) changing the shape of the foot, which is characterized by the omission of its longitudinal and transverse arch.
Congenital mark all-valgus deformation of foot is one of the most difficult congenital deformities of feet in children and accounts for about 18% of all deformations of the feet. According to many authors, the frequency of this pathology has been increasing recently.
At the same time in issues of diagnosis and treatment of congenital mark all-valgus deformation of foot in children, especially younger age, when the least significant secondary changes, and the treatment is the most effective, there are many differences.
Generally accepted is the view that in children under 3-4 years of age, and according to some authors — and to 8 years old, has a physiological flat feet, stabilizes the filling of the longitudinal arch of the fat fiber. This leads to the fact that the practical doctors believe you can diagnose and begin treatment of a congenital mark all-valgus deformation of the stop only after the specified age. This in turn leads to the fact that treatment starts too late, does not bring a satisfactory effect.
The cause of congenital flat feet are malformations of the structural elements of the foot in the prenatal period. Treatment of this deformity conservative. From the first days of life imposing monument plaster bandages, spend a correction of limb deformities, prescribe a rehabilitation-therapeutic treatments, healing gymnastics, massage, and wear orthopedic shoes.
Also there is the concept of mark all-valgus deformation of foot - a violation of the arch, in which the heel of the baby bounced out. This is the most common variant of the flat feet, a sign that serves the uneven erasing of the soles of the shoes. A child can not long run, to walk, complains of leg pain. At night are possible spasms of the calf muscles.
The main reasons for the development of flat feet in children are:
If it has changed walking the baby, he became less to move, more to rest after walking, running, complain about fatigue and pain in the legs, it is necessary the child take advice from an experienced doctor, a podiatrist.
If the child's symptoms - this is an opportunity to visit a podiatrist.
But sometimes the deformity of the foot is slowly and gradually, many years, manifesting practically any specific complaints. But gradually the symptomatology accumulates and becomes deterioration, such as strength and the ability of the organism to compensate the at an early age are limited.
There is a facility quick and accurate diagnosis, allows to examine children from verticalization.
The essence of the method lies in obtaining the fingerprint tracing feet on paper in the mode of static load. Analysis of the geometry of prints the soles of the feet allows you to assess the positional installation of a stop detecting deviations and link with the rear, side and inner surface of the feet and the musculoskeletal system in general.
Treatment of static flatfoot in children, aimed at strengthening the muscular-ligamentous apparatus of the feet, including massage, physiotherapy and exercise therapy.
In children of a younger age, are excluded soft shoes (boots, rubber boots, gym shoes); it is recommended to wear shoes with a solid sole and a small heel, well documenting the ankle joints.
When flat feet in older children is shown wearing orthopedic shoes with a special insole that lifts the skip state and return the foot in the correct position.
Fixing flat feet in children supports hydromassage, contrast foot baths, paraffin, ozokerite and mud wraps on the area of the soles, magnetic therapy. In the absence of the effect of the correction applied plaster bandages and a splint; in severe cases, the combination of flat feet possible operational interventions on bone and soft tissues of the foot and lower leg.
The optimal age for surgical treatment of flat feet in children is 8-12 years.